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The Moving Crust
New Zealand Volcanoes

New Zealand and Iceland sit on a plate boundary so have geohazards such as volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides and tsunami.

The word geohazard comes from two words:

  1. Geo – from the word ‘geological’ meaning from the earth.
  2. Hazard – something that poses a risk to people, places and property.

So ‘geohazards’ means the risk of damage from a geological process.

Sometimes hazards are not easy to see. All geological hazards (geohazards) could be called dormant until they are triggered.

The study and monitoring of geohazards helps us to better prepare ourselves and helps us respond to these events when they do occur.

Types of geohazard 

Geohazards include:

Common geohazards in New Zealand and Iceland

New Zealand and Iceland are geologically active. This is because they sit across the boundary of two tectonic plates. These moving plates create huge forces that have shaped the land; pushing up mountains, carving out lakes and rivers and creating rugged coastlines. These forces are still shaping the land today and can also cause frequent earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, hydrothermal activity and even tsunami.


Earthquakes are caused when rocks break due to the stress of the moving tectonic plates. Large earthquakes near towns or cities can cause great damage and sometimes loss of life. For this reason it is important for people living in places like New Zealand and Iceland to know how to prepare for earthquakes.


A tsunami is a series of powerful ocean surges caused by movement of part of the sea floor – often by an undersea earthquake or landslide. Most tsunamis are like very strong, fast tides, rather than waves. The larger ones can travel a long way inland. Much of the damage from tsunami is caused by the debris carried in the water.


When magma reaches the earth’s surface a volcano is formed. When a volcano erupts it shoots out pieces of rock and magma (ash) along with steam and gases. New Zealand’s volcanoes are often active and are always monitored, for example Ruapehu, Tongariro and White Island.

Iceland has 30 active volcanic systems.

Ash from eruptions can spread over large distances so can affect people living a long way from the eruption. Hazards can also happen close to active volcanic vents.


A lahar is a volcanic mudflow. When moving, a lahar looks like a mass of wet concrete carrying pieces of rock. Lahars can be different sizes and move at different speeds. Lahars can cause widespread damage.

Eruptions may start lahars by quickly melting snow and ice on a volcano, or moving water from a crater lake. Lahars can also be formed by heavy rainfall during or after an eruption, which washes volcanic ash off the volcano. Some of the largest lahars begin as landslides.

Hydrothermal activity

Hydrothermal systems are found where there is volcanic activity. The heat from the volcanic activity heats the local ground water. Most of New Zealand’s hydrothermal activity is found in the Taupō Volcanic Zone. Iceland uses hydrothermal activity to generate some of its electricity and heat homes.

Hydrothermal activity includes:

  • hot springs
  • geysers
  • warm ground.

Ground can become unstable in these areas and dangerous gases can form. Eruptions of hot water can also occur.


A landslide is a movement of soil and rock down a slope. Landslides often happen because of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and floods (rainfall).

Landslides are common in New Zealand and Iceland. Large landslides in towns and cities can cause thousands of dollars in damage and can be a risk to people.

Ready for a quiz? Try the 'Geohazards' interactive activity.

Audio Māori keywords: 

You could find out what geohazards there are in your local area and how to prepare for these.

Earthquakes are a common geohazard in New Zealand; why do you think we get so many earthquakes? Image: LEARNZ.

Earthquakes can cause rock fall or landslides like this one that occurred during the Christchurch earthquake. Where in Christchurch is this and what problems did these rock fall cause? Image: LEARNZ.

Iceland has over 130 different volcanoes and volcanic hazards are a part of life in Iceland. Image: David Karnå.

Tsunami can cause huge damage to low lying coastal areas. This is a village near the coast of Sumatra after the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami. What causes tsunami? Image: Public Domain.

Hydrothermal systems can be part of volcanic activity. Image: LEARNZ.

The steep volcanic landscape is prone to landslides. This is an old landslide scar on Image: Wikimedia, Hansueli Krapf.

The Moving Crust
New Zealand Volcanoes