Glossary

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advisory committee
A group with the power to make recommendations but not to take action enforcing them.

aftershock
A smaller earthquake following the main shock of a large earthquake.

anxiety
A feeling of worry or nervousness about something with an uncertain outcome.

civil defence
Steps taken by organised community groups for the protection of life and property in the event of a natural disaster.

debris dam
Natural damming of a river by some kind of landslide.

earthquake
A sudden movement of the Earth's crust caused by the release of stress accumulated along faults or by volcanic activity.

economic
Relating to the process or system by which goods and services are produced, sold, and bought.

evacuate
Remove a person or people from a place of danger to a safer place.

fault/fault line
A break in rock across which there is observable movement.

fault rupture
When part of a fault slips during an earthquake event.

ground shaking
The main cause of earthquake damage to human-made structures.

humanitariam
Concerned with or promoting human welfare.

infrastructure
The basic services and facilities needed for society to function.

isolated
Far away from other places, buildings, or people; remote. Having minimal contact with others.

landslide
Movement of soil, rock and debris down a slope.

magnitude
A measure of the energy released by an earthquake at its source. Magnitude is commonly determined from the shaking recorded on a seismograph. Each unit of magnitude on the scale represents a large increase in energy. For example a magnitude 6 releases 30 times more energy than a magnitude 5.

marine reserve
An area of ocean and shore that is protected.

Mw
The moment magnitude scale used by seismologists to measure the size of earthquakes.

plate boundaries
The edges of the plates that make up the crust of the Earth.

plate tectonics
The idea that the Earth's surface is a series of moving plates.

resilient
Able to cope with or recover from difficult conditions.

sanctuary
Nature reserve.

seismic
Relating to earthquakes or other vibrations of the earth.

State highway
State highways are roads that form a national purpose in moving people and goods nationwide. For example State Highway 1 runs the entire length of New Zealand.

subduction zone
The area or zone where two tectonic plates come together, one riding over the other.

tsunami
A series of powerful ocean surges caused by a large volume of the ocean floor being displaced – often by an undersea earthquake or landslide.

uplift
Vertical elevation of the Earth's surface in response to natural causes.

volunteers
People who work for an organization without being paid.